In the late 1930s and early 1940s, European Jews traveled east to seek refuge in the West. Three thousand refugees transited Japan and China, and more than 21,000 spent the war in Japanese-occupied Shanghai. Japanese diplomats in Europe were caught off guard by the flood of visa applicants, and the Foreign Ministry belatedly confronted a refugee problem. Unexpected visitors became uninvited guests. Vice Consul Sugihara Chiune might have faded into history as a minor diplomat in Lithuania had he not issued thousands of transit visas to refugees, including those who fulfilled few visa requirements. Sakamoto demonstrates how he helped thousands escape Europe; in the end, as she points out, a number of Japanese diplomats saved Jews by issuing visas, but very few issued visas to save Jews. Sakamoto focuses on the extensive archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which have not been treated at length before. By examining the cable traffic between diplomats and the ministry headquarters, she reveals the uncensored reactions of Japanese diplomats to Jewish refugees. Through the files of Jewish organizations and the American government, she presents the dimensions of the crisis as Germany's emphasis on emigration changed to extermination. Interviews with former diplomats, refugees, and those who knew Sugihara give human dimensions to a fascinating and little-known episode of the war.
This is a delightful little book that explores one of the most beautiful and enduring styles of landscape gardening. It features all the classic designs: pond, dry, tea, stroll and courtyard, along with features on tsukubai and topiary. It includes a directory of plants detailing size, usage and flowering time, plus tips on planting and propagation. It is a fascinating introduction to the influences and evolution of the Japanese garden, including the roles played by Buddhist monks, Zen philosophers and shoguns. The Japanese garden is full of ancient symbolism and imagery, a visual feast as well as an aural and emotional experience. This book examines the ancient influences that have brought this type of landscape gardening into the 21st century, focusing on the essential elements, both natural and man-made, of the Japanese garden. It introduces the five main styles of garden - pond, dry, tea, stroll and courtyard - explaining their significance and how they have been used in the past. The book then covers decorative features such as dry water, topiary and tsukubai, followed by a plant directory that provides an evaluation of the plants traditionally used, with advice on flowering habits, pruning and hardiness. Beautifully illustrated with more than 80 images, this little gift book captures the essence of one of the most stylish and contemporary forms of landscape gardening.
Japanese Language Teaching examines the practical aspects of the acquisition of Japanese as a second language, underpinned by current theory and research. Each chapter examines the theory and practice of language teaching, and progresses to a consideration of the practical design of tasks for teaching. The final section applies theory and practice to an empirical case study, drawn from a classroom with Japanese as a second language. With its emphasis on practice underpinned by contemporary theory, this book will be of interest to postgraduates studying second language acquisition and applied linguistics.
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